President Gotabaya Rajapaksa has fled Sri Lanka on a military jet, amid mass protests over the island's economic crisis.
The country's air force confirmed the 73-year-old flew to the Maldives with his wife and two security officials.
In his absence, he has appointed Prime Minister Ranil Wickremesinghe as acting president.
Mr Rajapaksa's departure ends a family dynasty that has dominated Sri Lanka's politics for the past two decades.
The president had been in hiding after crowds stormed his residence on Saturday, and had pledged to resign on Wednesday 13 July.
A source said that Mr Rajapaksa will not remain in the Maldives and intends to travel on to a third country.
His brother, former Finance Minister Basil Rajapaksa, has also left Sri Lanka and is said to be heading to the US.
As Sri Lankans awoke to the news, thousands of people took to the streets of the capital, Colombo. Many gathered at Galle Face Green, the city's main protest site. Some listened to fiery speeches at a makeshift stage set up for ordinary people to take the mic.
Punctuated by cries of "Victory to the struggle", the rallying cry of the protest movement, speakers railed against a government and the leaders they feel have failed them.
Sri Lankan Prime Minister, Ranil Wickremesinghe, has declared a state of emergency across the country and a curfew has been imposed in the western province, a spokesperson in his office said.
Police have fired tear gas to disperse a group of protesters who were walking near the prime minister's office and towards parliament.
Some demonstrators were furious about Mr Rajapaksa's departure, seeing a lack of accountability.
"We don't like it. We want to keep him. We want our money back! And we want to put all the Rajapaksas in an open prison where they can do farm work," said protester GP Nimal.
But 23-year-old university student Reshani Samarakoon told news men that the former president's exile offered "hope that in the future we can eventually become a developed country, economically and socially".
Sri Lankans blame President Rajapaksa's administration for their worst economic crisis in decades.
For months they have been struggling with daily power cuts and shortages of basics like fuel, food and medicines.
The leader, who enjoys immunity from prosecution while he is president, is believed to have wanted to flee abroad before stepping down to avoid the possibility of arrest by the new administration.