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For centuries, the history of much of Nigeria. Re-Introducing Nigerian and its Background.

For centuries, the history of much of Nigeria has been hidden from the world, lost to the ravages of time, nature and repressive governments.

In ancient and pre-colonial times, the area of present-day Nigeria was occupied by a great diversity of ethnic groups with very different languages and traditions. British influence and control over what would become Nigeria and Africa's most populous country grew through the 19th century. A series of constitutions after World War II granted Nigeria greater autonomy. After independence in 1960, politics were marked by coups and mostly military rule, until the death of a military head of state in 1998 allowed for a political transition. In 1999, a new constitution was adopted and a peaceful transition to civilian government was completed. The government continues to face the daunting task of institutionalizing democracy and reforming a petroleum-based economy, whose revenues have been squandered through decades of corruption and mismanagement.


In addition, Nigeria continues to experience longstanding ethnic and religious tensions. Although both the 2003 and 2007 presidential elections were marred by significant irregularities and violence, Nigeria is currently experiencing its longest period of civilian rule since independence. The general elections of 2007 marked the first civilian-to-civilian transfer of power in the country's history.


National and state elections in 2011 and 2015 were generally regarded as credible. The 2015 election was also heralded for the fact that the then-umbrella opposition party, the All Progressives Congress, defeated the long-ruling People's Democratic Party that had governed since 1999, and assumed the presidency, marking the first peaceful transfer of power from one party to another. Presidential and legislative elections were held in early 2019 and deemed broadly free and fair despite voting irregularities, intimidation, and violence.

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Geography Location Western Africa, bordering the Gulf of Guinea, between Benin and Cameroon Geographic coordinates 10 00 N, 8 00 E Map references Africa Area total: 923,768 sq km land: 910,768 sq km water: 13,000 sq km country comparison to the world: 33 Area - comparative about six times the size of Georgia; slightly more than twice the size of California Area comparison map Land boundaries total: 4,477 km border countries (4): Benin 809 km, Cameroon 1975 km, Chad 85 km, Niger 1608 km Coastline 853 km Maritime claims territorial sea: 12 nm exclusive economic zone: 200 nm continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation Climate varies; equatorial in south, tropical in center, arid in north Terrain southern lowlands merge into central hills and plateaus; mountains in the southeast, plains in the north Elevation highest point: Chappal Waddi 2,419 m lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m mean elevation: 380 m Natural resources natural gas, petroleum, tin, iron ore, coal, limestone, niobium, lead, zinc, arable land Land use agricultural land: 78% (2018 est.) arable land: 37.3% (2018 est.) permanent crops: 7.4% (2018 est.) permanent pasture: 33.3% (2018 est.) forest: 9.5% (2018 est.) other: 12.5% (2018 est.) Irrigated land 2,930 sq km (2012) Total renewable water resources 286.2 billion cubic meters (2017 est.) Population distribution the largest population of any African nation; significant population clusters are scattered throughout the country, with the highest density areas being in the south and southwest as shown in this population distribution map Natural hazards periodic droughts; flooding Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping-London Convention, Marine Dumping-London Protocol, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: Tropical Timber 2006 Geography - note the Niger River enters the country in the northwest and flows southward through tropical rain forests and swamps to its delta in the Gulf of Guinea

People and Society Population 219,463,862 (July 2021 est.) note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of the population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected country comparison to the world: 6 Nationality noun: Nigerian(s) adjective: Nigerian Ethnic groups Hausa 30%, Yoruba 15.5%, Igbo (Ibo) 15.2%, Fulani 6%, Tiv 2.4%, Kanuri/Beriberi 2.4%, Ibibio 1.8%, Ijaw/Izon 1.8%, other 24.7% (2018 est.) note: Nigeria, Africa's most populous country, is composed of more than 250 ethnic groups Languages English (official), Hausa, Yoruba, Igbo (Ibo), Fulani, over 500 additional indigenous languages Religions Muslim 53.5%, Roman Catholic 10.6%, other Christian 35.3%, other .6% (2018 est.) Demographic profile Nigeria’s population is projected to grow from more than 186 million people in 2016 to 392 million in 2050, becoming the world’s fourth most populous country. Nigeria’s sustained high population growth rate will continue for the foreseeable future because of population momentum and its high birth rate. Abuja has not successfully implemented family planning programs to reduce and space births because of a lack of political will, government financing, and the availability and affordability of services and products, as well as a cultural preference for large families. Increased educational attainment, especially among women, and improvements in health care are needed to encourage and better enable parents to opt for smaller families.

Nigeria needs to harness the potential of its burgeoning youth population in order to boost economic development, reduce widespread poverty, and channel large numbers of unemployed youth into productive activities and away from ongoing religious and ethnic violence. While the most movement of Nigerians is internal, significant emigration regionally and to the West provides an outlet for Nigerians looking for economic opportunities, seeking asylum, and increasingly pursuing higher education. Immigration largely of West Africans continues to be insufficient to offset emigration and the loss of highly skilled workers. Nigeria also is a major source, transit, and destination country for forced labor and sex trafficking. Age structure 0-14 years: 41.7% (male 45,571,738/female 43,674,769) 15-24 years: 20.27% (male 22,022,660/female 21,358,753) 25-54 years: 30.6% (male 32,808,913/female 32,686,474) 55-64 years: 4.13% (male 4,327,847/female 4,514,264) 65 years and over: 3.3% (male 3,329,083/female 3,733,801) (2020 est.) population pyramid Dependency ratios total dependency ratio: 86 youth dependency ratio: 80.9 elderly dependency ratio: 5.1 potential support ratio: 19.6 (2020 est.) Median age total: 18.6 years male: 18.4 years female: 18.9 years (2020 est.) country comparison to the world: 207 Population growth rate 2.53% (2021 est.) country comparison to the world: 19 Birth rate 34.38 births/1,000 population (2021 est.) country comparison to the world: 19 Death rate 8.89 deaths/1,000 population (2021 est.) country comparison to the world: 60 Net migration rate -0.21 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2021 est.) country comparison to the world: 110 Population distribution the largest population of any African nation; significant population clusters are scattered throughout the country, with the highest density areas being in the south and southwest as shown in this population distribution map Urbanization urban population: 52.7% of total population (2021) rate of urbanization: 3.92% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.) total population growth rate v. urban population growth rate, 2000-2030 Major urban areas - population 14.862 million Lagos, 4.103 million Kano, 3.649 million Ibadan, 3.464 million ABUJA (capital), 3.171 million Port Harcourt, 1.782 million Benin City (2021)


Sex ratio at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female 0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female 15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female 25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female 55-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.89 male(s)/female total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2020 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth 20.4 years (2018 est.) note: median age at first birth among women 25-49 Maternal mortality rate 917 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.) country comparison to the world: 4 Infant mortality rate total: 58.23 deaths/1,000 live births male: 63.67 deaths/1,000 live births female: 52.46 deaths/1,000 live births (2021 est.) country comparison to the world: 14 Life expectancy at birth total population: 60.87 years male: 59.07 years female: 62.78 years (2021 est.) country comparison to the world: 217 Total fertility rate 4.67 children born/woman (2021 est.) country comparison to the world: 16 Contraceptive prevalence rate 16.6% (2018) Drinking water source improved: urban: 92.6% of population rural: 63.6% of population total: 77.9% of population unimproved: urban: 7.4% of population rural: 36.4% of population total: 22.1% of the population (2017 est.) Current Health Expenditure 3.9% (2018) Physicians density 0.38 physicians/1,000 population (2018) Sanitation facility access improved: urban: 80.2% of population rural: 39.5% of population total: 59.7% of population unimproved: urban: 19.8% of population rural: 60.5% of population total: 40.3% of the population (2017 est.) HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate 1.3% (2020 est.) country comparison to the world: 33 HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS 1.7 million (2020 est.) country comparison to the world: 4 HIV/AIDS - deaths 49,000 (2020 est.) country comparison to the world: 3 Major infectious diseases degree of risk: very high (2020) food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and yellow fever water contact diseases: leptospirosis and schistosomiasis animal contact diseases: rabies respiratory diseases: meningococcal meningitis aerosolized dust or soil contact diseases: Lassa fever note: on 7 October 2019, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention issued a Travel Health Notice for a Yellow Fever outbreak in Nigeria; a large, ongoing outbreak of yellow fever in Nigeria began in September 2017; the outbreak is now spread throughout the country with the Nigerian Ministry of Health reported cases of the disease in all 36 states and the Federal Capital Territory; the CDC recommends travelers going to Nigeria should receive vaccination against yellow fever at least 10 days before travel and should take steps to prevent mosquito bites while there; those never vaccinated against yellow fever should avoid travel to Nigeria during the outbreak note: widespread ongoing transmission of a respiratory illness caused by the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) is occurring throughout Nigeria; as of 19 July 2021, Nigeria has reported a total of 169,678 cases of COVID-19 or 82.31 cumulative cases of COVID-19 per 100,000 population with 1.03 cumulative death per 100,000 population; as of 19 July 2021, 1.23% of the population has received at least one dose of COVID-19 vaccine Obesity - adult prevalence rate 8.9% (2016) country comparison to the world: 145 Children under the age of 5 years underweight 18.4% (2019/20) country comparison to the world: 27 Education expenditures NA Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 62% male: 71.3% female: 52.7% (2018) School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education) total: 9 years male: 9 years female: 8 years (2011) Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 total: 18.3% male: 18.4% NA female: 18.2% NA (2019 est.) country comparison to the world: 78

Environment Environment - current issues serious overpopulation and rapid urbanization have led to numerous environmental problems; urban air and water pollution; rapid deforestation; soil degradation; loss of arable land; oil pollution - water, air, and soil have suffered serious damage from oil spills Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping-London Convention, Marine Dumping-London Protocol, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: Tropical Timber 2006 Air pollutants particulate matter emissions: 48.73 micrograms per cubic meter (2016 est.) carbon dioxide emissions: 120.37 megatons (2016 est.) methane emissions: 143.99 megatons (2020 est.) Total water withdrawal municipal: 5 billion cubic meters (2017 est.) industrial: 1.965 billion cubic meters (2017 est.) agricultural: 5.51 billion cubic meters (2017 est.) Total renewable water resources 286.2 billion cubic meters (2017 est.) Climate varies; equatorial in south, tropical in center, arid in north Land use agricultural land: 78% (2018 est.) arable land: 37.3% (2018 est.) permanent crops: 7.4% (2018 est.) permanent pasture: 33.3% (2018 est.) forest: 9.5% (2018 est.) other: 12.5% (2018 est.) Revenue from forest resources forest revenues: 1.02% of GDP (2018 est.) country comparison to the world: 53 Revenue from coal coal revenues: 0% of GDP (2018 est.) country comparison to the world: 145 Urbanization urban population: 52.7% of total population (2021) rate of urbanization: 3.92% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.) total population growth rate v. urban population growth rate, 2000-2030 Major infectious diseases degree of risk: very high (2020) food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and yellow fever water contact diseases: leptospirosis and schistosomiasis animal contact diseases: rabies respiratory diseases: meningococcal meningitis aerosolized dust or soil contact diseases: Lassa fever note: on 7 October 2019, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention issued a Travel Health Notice for a Yellow Fever outbreak in Nigeria; a large, ongoing outbreak of yellow fever in Nigeria began in September 2017; the outbreak is now spread throughout the country with the Nigerian Ministry of Health reported cases of the disease in all 36 states and the Federal Capital Territory; the CDC recommends travelers going to Nigeria should receive vaccination against yellow fever at least 10 days before travel and should take steps to prevent mosquito bites while there; those never vaccinated against yellow fever should avoid travel to Nigeria during the outbreak note: widespread ongoing transmission of a respiratory illness caused by the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) is occurring throughout Nigeria; as of 19 July 2021, Nigeria has reported a total of 169,678 cases of COVID-19 or 82.31 cumulative cases of COVID-19 per 100,000 population with 1.03 cumulative death per 100,000 population; as of 19 July 2021, 1.23% of the population has received at least one dose of COVID-19 vaccine Food insecurity widespread lack of access: due to persistent civil conflict in the northern areas - according to the latest analysis, about 12.8 million people are assessed to be in need of humanitarian assistance in the June−August 2021 period as a result of worsening conflict that is driving new population displacements; over 2.8 million people are estimated to be internally displaced in northeastern states of Adamawa, Borno, and Yobe, due to communal clashes in northwestern/northcentral zones and natural disasters; the areas inaccessible to humanitarian interventions are facing the worst food insecurity conditions (2021) Waste and recycling the municipal solid waste generated annually: 27,614,830 tons (2009 est.)

Government Country name conventional long form: Federal Republic of Nigeria conventional short form: Nigeria etymology: named for the Niger River that flows through the west of the country to the Atlantic Ocean; from a native term "Ni Gir" meaning "River Gir" Government type federal presidential republic Capital name: Abuja geographic coordinates: 9 05 N, 7 32 E time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time) etymology: Abuja is a planned capital city, it replaced Lagos in 1991; situated in the center of the country, Abuja takes its name from a nearby town, now renamed Suleja Administrative divisions 36 states and 1 territory*; Abia, Adamawa, Akwa Ibom, Anambra, Bauchi, Bayelsa, Benue, Borno, Cross River, Delta, Ebonyi, Edo, Ekiti, Enugu, Federal Capital Territory*, Gombe, Imo, Jigawa, Kaduna, Kano, Katsina, Kebbi, Kogi, Kwara, Lagos, Nasarawa, Niger, Ogun, Ondo, Osun, Oyo, Plateau, Rivers, Sokoto, Taraba, Yobe, Zamfara Independence 1 October 1960 (from the UK) National holiday Independence Day (National Day), 1 October (1960) Constitution history: several previous; latest adopted 5 May 1999, effective 29 May 1999 amendments: proposed by the National Assembly; passage requires at least two-thirds majority vote of both houses and approval by the Houses of Assembly of at least two-thirds of the states; amendments to constitutional articles on the creation of a new state, fundamental constitutional rights, or constitution-amending procedures require at least four-fifths majority vote by both houses of the National Assembly and approval by the Houses of Assembly in at least two-thirds of the states; passage of amendments limited to the creation of a new state requires at least two-thirds majority vote by the proposing National Assembly house and approval by the Houses of Assembly in two-thirds of the states; amended several times, last in 2018 Legal system the mixed legal system of English common law, Islamic law (in 12 northern states), and traditional law International law organization participation accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction Citizenship citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Nigeria dual citizenship recognized: yes The residency requirement for naturalization: 15 years Suffrage 18 years of age; universal Executive branch chief of state: President Maj. Gen. (ret.) Muhammadu BUHARI (since 29 May 2015); Vice President Oluyemi "Yemi" OSINBAJO (since 29 May 2015); note - the president is both chief of state, head of government, and commander-in-chief of the armed forces head of government: President Maj.Gen. (ret.) Muhammadu BUHARI (since 29 May 2015); Vice President Oluyemi "Yemi" OSINBAJO (since 29 May 2015) cabinet: Federal Executive Council appointed by the president but constrained constitutionally to include at least one member from each of the 36 states elections/appointments: president directly elected by qualified majority popular vote and at least 25% of the votes cast in 24 of Nigeria's 36 states; president elected for a 4-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 23 February 2019 (next to be held in February 2023); note: the election was scheduled for 16 February 2019, but postponed on 16 February 2019 election results: Muhammadu BUHARI elected president; percent of the vote - Muhammadu BUHARI (APC) 53%, Atiku ABUBAKAR (PDP) 39%, other 8% Legislative branch description: bicameral National Assembly consists of: Senate (109 seats - 3 each for the 36 states and 1 for Abuja-Federal Capital Territory; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by a simple majority vote to serve 4-year terms) House of Representatives (360 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by a simple majority vote to serve 4-year terms) elections: Senate - last held on 23 February 2019 (next to be held on 23 February 2023); note: the election was scheduled for 16 February 2019 but was postponed on 15 February 2019 House of Representatives - last held on 23 February 2019 (next to be held on 23 February 2023); note: the election was scheduled for 16 February 2019 but was postponed on 15 February 2019 election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - APC 65, PDP 39, YPP 1, TBD 3; composition - men 103, women 6, percent of women 5.5% House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - APC 217, PDP 115, other 20, TBD 8; composition - men 346, women 14, percent of women 3.9%; note - total National Assembly percent of women 4.3% Judicial branch highest courts: Supreme Court (consists of the chief justice and 15 justices) The judge selection and term of office: judges appointed by the president upon the recommendation of the National Judicial Council, a 23-member independent body of federal and state judicial officials; judge appointments confirmed by the Senate; judges serve until age 70 subordinate courts: Court of Appeal; Federal High Court; High Court of the Federal Capital Territory; Sharia Court of Appeal of the Federal Capital Territory; Customary Court of Appeal of the Federal Capital Territory; state court system similar in structure to the federal system Political parties and leaders Accord Party or ACC [Mohammad Lawal MALADO] All Progressives Congress or APC [Adams OSHIOMHOLE] All Progressives Grand Alliance or APGA [Victor Ike OYE] Democratic Peoples Party or DPP [Biodun OGUNBIYI] Labor Party or LP [Alhai Abdulkadir ABDULSALAM] Peoples Democratic Party or PDP [Uche SECONDUS] Young Progressive Party or YPP [Kingsley MOGHALU] International organization participation ACP, AfDB, AU, C, CD, D-8, ECOWAS, EITI (compliant country), FAO, G-15, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSMA, MONUSCO, NAM, OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW, OPEC, PCA, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNISFA, UNITAR, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Uzoma Elizabeth EMENIKE (since 7 July 2021) chancery: 3519 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 800-7201 (ext. 100) FAX: [1] (202) 362-6541 email address and website: info@nigeriaembassyusa.org https://www.nigeriaembassyusa.org/ consulate(s) general: Atlanta, New York Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Mary Beth LEONARD (since 24 December 2019) embassy: Plot 1075 Diplomatic Drive, Central District Area, Abuja mailing address: 8320 Abuja Place, Washington DC 20521-8320 telephone: [234] (9) 461-4000 FAX: [234] (9) 461-4036 email address and website: AbujaACS@state.gov https://ng.usembassy.gov/ consulate(s) general: Lagos Flag description three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and green; the color green represents the forests and abundant natural wealth of the country, white stands for peace and unity National symbol(s) eagle; national colors: green, white National anthem name: Arise Oh Compatriots, Nigeria's Call Obey lyrics/music: John A. ILECHUKWU, Eme Etim AKPAN, B.A. OGUNNAIKE, Sotu OMOIGUI and P.O. ADERIBIGBE/Benedict Elide ODIASE note: adopted 1978; lyrics are a mixture of the five top entries in a national contest

Economy Economic overview Nigeria is Sub-Saharan Africa’s largest economy and relies heavily on oil as its main source of foreign exchange earnings and government revenues. Following the 2008-09 global financial crises, the banking sector was effectively recapitalized and regulation enhanced. Since then, Nigeria’s economic growth has been driven by growth in agriculture, telecommunications, and services. Economic diversification and strong growth have not translated into a significant decline in poverty levels; over 62% of Nigeria's over 180 million people still live in extreme poverty. Despite its strong fundamentals, oil-rich Nigeria has been hobbled by an inadequate power supply, lack of infrastructure, delays in the passage of legislative reforms, an inefficient property registration system, restrictive trade policies, an inconsistent regulatory environment, a slow and ineffective judicial system, unreliable dispute resolution mechanisms, insecurity, and pervasive corruption. Regulatory constraints and security risks have limited new investment in oil and natural gas, and Nigeria's oil production had been contracting every year since 2012 until a slight rebound in 2017. President BUHARI, elected in March 2015, has established a cabinet of economic ministers that includes several technocrats, and he has announced plans to increase transparency, diversify the economy away from oil, and improve fiscal management, but has taken a primarily protectionist approach that favors domestic producers at the expense of consumers. President BUHARI ran on an anti-corruption platform, and has made some headway in alleviating corruption, such as the implementation of a Treasury Single Account that allows the government to better manage its resources and a more transparent government payroll and personnel system that eliminated duplicate and "ghost workers." The government also is working to develop stronger public-private partnerships for roads, agriculture, and power. Nigeria entered a recession in 2016 as a result of lower oil prices and production, exacerbated by militant attacks on oil and gas infrastructure in the Niger Delta region, coupled with detrimental economic policies, including foreign exchange restrictions. GDP growth turned positive in 2017 as oil prices recovered and output stabilized. Real GDP growth rate 0.8% (2017 est.) -1.6% (2016 est.) 2.7% (2015 est.) country comparison to the world: 177 Inflation rate (consumer prices) 11.3% (2019 est.) 12.1% (2018 est.) 16.5% (2017 est.) country comparison to the world: 211 Credit ratings Fitch rating: B (2020) Moody's rating: B2 (2017) Standard & Poors rating: B- (2020) Real GDP (purchasing power parity) $1,032,048,000,000 (2019 est.) $1,009,748,000,000 (2018 est.) $990.7 billion (2017 est.) note: data are in 2017 dollars country comparison to the world: 23 GDP (official exchange rate) $475.062 billion (2019 est.) Real GDP per capita $5,136 (2019 est.) $5,155 (2018 est.) $5,190 (2017 est.) note: data are in 2017 dollars country comparison to the world: 176 Gross national saving 23.2% of GDP (2019 est.) 19.3% of GDP (2018 est.) 18.3% of GDP (2017 est.) country comparison to the world: 83 GDP - composition, by sector of origin agriculture: 21.1% (2016 est.) industry: 22.5% (2016 est.) services: 56.4% (2017 est.) GDP - composition, by end use household consumption: 80% (2017 est.) government consumption: 5.8% (2017 est.) investment in fixed capital: 14.8% (2017 est.) investment in inventories: 0.7% (2017 est.) exports of goods and services: 11.9% (2017 est.) imports of goods and services: -13.2% (2017 est.) Ease of Doing Business Index scores Overall score: 56.9 (2020) Starting a Business score: 86.2 (2020) Trading score: 29.2 (2020) Enforcement score: 61.5 (2020) Agricultural products cassava, yams, maize, oil palm fruit, rice, vegetables, sorghum, groundnuts, fruit, sweet potatoes Industries crude oil, coal, tin, columbite; rubber products, wood; hides and skins, textiles, cement and other construction materials, food products, footwear, chemicals, fertilizer, printing, ceramics, steel Industrial production growth rate 2.2% (2017 est.) country comparison to the world: 126 Labor force 60.08 million (2017 est.) country comparison to the world: 10 Labor force - by occupation agriculture: 70% industry: 10% services: 20% (1999 est.) Unemployment rate 16.5% (2017 est.) 13.9% (2016 est.) country comparison to the world: 181 Population below the poverty line 40.1% (2018 est.) Gini Index coefficient - distribution of family income 35.1 (2018 est.) 50.6 (1997) country comparison to the world: 105 Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 1.8% highest 10%: 38.2% (2010 est.) Budget revenues: 12.92 billion (2017 est.) expenditures: 19.54 billion (2017 est.) Taxes and other revenues 3.4% (of GDP) (2017 est.) country comparison to the world: 220 Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) -1.8% (of GDP) (2017 est.) country comparison to the world: 99 Public debt 21.8% of GDP (2017 est.) 19.6% of GDP (2016 est.) country comparison to the world: 185 Fiscal year calendar year Current account balance $10.38 billion (2017 est.) $2.714 billion (2016 est.) country comparison to the world: 24 Exports $34.545 billion (2020 est.) $62.531 billion (2019 est.) $60.547 billion (2018 est.) country comparison to the world: 66 Exports - partners India 16%, Spain 10%, United States 7%, France 7%, Netherlands 6% (2019) Exports - commodities crude petroleum, natural gas, scrap vessels, flexible metal tubing, cocoa beans (2019) Imports $32.67 billion (2017 est.) $35.24 billion (2016 est.) country comparison to the world: 69 Imports - partners China 30%, Netherlands 11%, United States 6%, Belgium 5% (2019) Imports - commodities refined petroleum, cars, wheat, laboratory glassware, packaged medicines (2019) Reserves of foreign exchange and gold $38.77 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $25.84 billion (31 December 2016 est.) country comparison to the world: 45 Debt - external $26.847 billion (2019 est.) $22.755 billion (2018 est.) country comparison to the world: 88 Exchange rates nairas (NGN) per US dollar - 383.5 (2020 est.) 362.75 (2019 est.) 363 (2018 est.) 192.73 (2014 est.) 158.55 (2013 est.)

Energy Electricity access electrification - total population: 62% (2019) electrification - urban areas: 91% (2019) electrification - rural areas: 30% (2019) Electricity - production 29.35 billion kWh (2016 est.) country comparison to the world: 67 Electricity - consumption 24.72 billion kWh (2016 est.) country comparison to the world: 69 Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2016 est.) country comparison to the world: 178 Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2016 est.) country comparison to the world: 180 Electricity - installed generating capacity 10.52 million kW (2016 est.) country comparison to the world: 58 Electricity - from fossil fuels 80% of total installed capacity (2016 est.) country comparison to the world: 83 Electricity - from nuclear fuels 0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.) country comparison to the world: 157 Electricity - from hydroelectric plants 19% of total installed capacity (2017 est.) country comparison to the world: 91 Electricity - from other renewable sources 0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.) country comparison to the world: 202 Crude oil - production 1.989 million bbl/day (2018 est.) country comparison to the world: 11 Crude oil - exports 2.096 million bbl/day (2015 est.) country comparison to the world: 6 Crude oil - imports 0 bbl/day (2015 est.) country comparison to the world: 177 Crude oil - proved reserves 37.45 billion bbl (1 January 2018 est.) country comparison to the world: 10 Refined petroleum products - production 35,010 bbl/day (2017 est.) country comparison to the world: 83 Refined petroleum products - consumption 325,000 bbl/day (2016 est.) country comparison to the world: 41 Refined petroleum products - exports 2,332 bbl/day (2015 est.) country comparison to the world: 102 Refined petroleum products - imports 223,400 bbl/day (2015 est.) country comparison to the world: 31 Natural gas - production 44.48 billion cu m (2017 est.) country comparison to the world: 18 Natural gas - consumption 17.24 billion cu m (2017 est.)